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Leland H. Hartwell Director, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Nobel Laureate for Medicine, 2001 Yeast has proved to be the most useful single-celled organism for studying the fundamental aspects of cell biology. Resources are now available for yeast that greatly simplify and empower new investigations, like the presence of strains with each gene deleted, each protein tagged and databases on protein-protein interactions, gene regulation, and subcellular protein location. A powerful combination of genetics, cell biology, and biochemistry employed by thousands of yeast researchers has unraveled the complexities of numerous cellular processes from mitosis to secretion and even uncovered new insights into prion diseases and the role of prions in normal biology. These insights have proven, time and again, to foretell the roles of proteins and pathways in human cells. The collection of articles in this volume explores the use of yeast in pathway analysis and drug discovery. Yeast has, of course, supplied mankind's most ubiquitous drug for thousands of years. In one aspect, the role of yeast in drug discovery is much like the role of yeast in other areas of biology. Yeast offers the power of genetics and a repetoire of resources available in no other organism. Using yeast in the study of drug targets and metabolism can help to make a science of what has been largely an empirical activity. A science of drug discovery would permit rigorous answers to important questions.
THE YEAST OF YERUSHALAIM. Jesus said that the Kingdom of God is like yeast. As yeast is worked into the dough and changes its structure positively, so the gospel is dispersed into societies and changes them from the inside. To mix the yeast of the gospel into societies, Jesus sent His disciples out to make disciples of all nations: "You shall receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall be witnesses to Me in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth" (Acts 1:8). Jerusalem is pronounced Yerushalaim in Hebrew. In this city Jesus was crucified, raised from the dead, and ascended to heaven, and to this city He will return. In Jerusalem, the Holy Spirit came into the hearts of believers, inspiring them to spread the gospel worldwide. The Acts and letters of the apostles show how the yeast spread throughout the Roman empire in the first century. When the yeast of Yerushalaim has done its work, Christ will return to renew heaven, earth, and Jerusalem.
In what senses do animals, plants, and minerals "write"? How does their "writing" mark our livesour past, present, and future? Addressing such questions with an exhilarating blend of creative flair and theoretical depth, Of Sheep, Oranges, and Yeast traces how the lives of, yes, sheep, oranges, gold, and yeast mark the stories of those animals we call "human."
Bringing together often separate conversations in animal studies, plant studies, ecotheory, and biopolitics, Of Sheep, Oranges, and Yeast crafts scripts for literary and historical study that embrace the fact that we come into being through our relations to other animal, plant, fungal, microbial, viral, mineral, and chemical actors. The book opens and closes in the company of a Shakespearean character talking through his painful encounter with the skin of a lamb (in the form of parchment). This encounter stages a visceral awareness of what Julian Yates names a "multispecies impression," the way all acts of writing are saturated with the "writing" of other beings. Yates then develops a multimodal reading strategy that traces a series of anthropo-zoo-genetic figures that derive from our comaking with sheep (keyed to the story of biopolitics), oranges (keyed to economy), and yeast (keyed to the notion of foundation or infrastructure).Â
Working with an array of materials (published and archival), across disciplines and historical periods (Classical to postmodern), the book allows sheep, oranges, and yeast to dictate their own chronologies and plot their own stories. What emerges is a methodology that fundamentally alters what it means to read in the twenty-first century.Â
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